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  • Writer's pictureEr S G Ashok Kumar PMP, IGBC-AP

GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGIES:-

· INTRODUCTION:-

Geospatial technology enables us to acquire data that is referenced to the earth and use it for analysis, modeling, simulations and visualization. Geospatial technology allows us to make informed decisions based on the importance and priority of resources most of which are limited in nature.

Geospatial technology may be used to create intelligent maps and models that may be interactively queried to get the desired results in a STEM application or may be used to advocate social investigations and policy based research. It may be used to reveal spatial patterns that are embedded in large volumes of data that may not be accessed collectively.

Geospatial technology has become an essential part of everyday life. It’s used to track everything from personal fitness to transportation to changes on the surface of the earth.

“It’s one of the hottest technologies out there,” said Professor SUNIL BHASKARAN, founding director of the Geospatial Center of the CUNY CREST Institute (BGCCCI) at Bronx Community College and a Doctoral faculty at the Earth and Environmental Science (E.E.S.) program, Graduate Center, CUNY. “The industry wants to employ skilled technicians they’re not able to find,” Bhaskaran said. His courses teach “skills that are aligned with industry’s demand.”

· DEFINITION :-

The term Geospatial technologies is a term used to describe the range of modern tools contributing to the geographic mapping and analysis of the Earth and human societies. Satellites allowed images of the Earth's surface and human activities therein with certain limitations.GIS is one of the form of geospatial technology.The examples for geospatial technologies are GPS, remote sensing, and geofencing.

· GEOSPATIAL TECHNIQUES:-

The term the Geospatial techniques are defined as the together with remote sensing, geographic information science, Global Positioning System (GPS), cartography, geovisualization, and spatial statistics are being used to capture, store, manipulate and analyze to understand complex situations to solve mysteries of the universe.

· TOP BENEFITS OF GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGY:-

The following are the top benefits of geospatial technology are listed below:-

ü Simplification of complex data to improve decision making.

ü It helps in maintaining transparency in data for citizen access.

ü Improved communication during crisis for better crisis management.

ü It helps in managing natural resources.

ü It helps the government in making better decisions.

ü It helps in discovering precautions before planning development changes in a community.

· REVITALIZING EXISTING APPLICATIONS OF GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGY:-

The following are the revitalizing existing applications of geospatial technology are briefly explain below:-

Geospatial is technology playing a vital role in the new space revolution. Initially building, launching, and operating satellites systems is a time and money consuming process due to its humongous size.

Geospatial mappings for machines are gradually showing it’s prominence with increasing utilization of it into automation. From self-driving vehicles to automated route mapping drones are wonders of geospatial technology


· TYPES OF GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGIES:-

The following are the different types of geospatial technologies are given below:-

1- Geographic information system.[GIS]

2- Remote sensing [R.S] and

3- Global positioning system [GPS].

1-Geographical information system :-

A geographic information system (GIS) is a conceptualized framework that provides the ability to capture and analyze spatial and geographic data. GIS applications (or GIS apps) are computer-based tools that allow the user to create interactive queries, store and edit spatial and non-spatial data, analyze spatial information output, and visually share the results of these operations by presenting them as maps.

Geographic information science (or, GIScience) the scientific study of geographic concepts, applications, and systems is commonly initialized as GIS, as well.

Geographic information systems are utilized in multiple technologies, processes, techniques and methods. They are attached to various operations and numerous applications, that relate to: engineering, planning, management, transport/logistics, insurance, telecommunications, and business. For this reason, GIS and location intelligence applications are at the foundation of location-enabled services, that rely on geographic analysis and visualization.

GIS include inventory and management of resources, crime mapping, establishing and monitoring routes, managing networks, monitoring and managing vehicles, managing properties, locating and targeting customers.


FIG-1 FEATURES OF GIS

· COMPONENTS OF GIS: -

The following are the five key components of GIS are listed below:-

1- Hardware

2- Software

3- Data

4- People and

5- Methods

2-Remote sensing :-

Remote sensing is the process of detecting and monitoring the physical characteristics of an area by measuring its reflected and emitted radiation at a distance (typically from satellite or aircraft). Special cameras collect remotely sensed images, which help researchers "sense" things about the Earth. It is also determining the art and science of making measurements of the earth using sensors on airplanes or satellites.

· APPLICATIONS OF REMOTE SENSING:-

The following are the applications of the remote sensing are given below :-

1- Conventional radar is mostly associated with aerial traffic control, early warning, and certain large-scale meteorological data.

2- Doppler radar is used by local law enforcements' monitoring of speed limits and in enhanced.

3- Laser and radar altimeters on satellites have provided a wide range of data. By measuring the bulges of water caused by gravity, they map features on the seafloor to a resolution of a mile or so. By measuring the height and wavelength of ocean waves, the altimeters measure wind speeds and direction, and surface ocean currents and directions.

4- Radiometers and photometers are the most common instrument in use, collecting reflected and emitted radiation in a wide range of frequencies.


Fig 2- REMOTE SENSING PROCESS

3- Global positioning system :-

The global positioning system is defined as the navigation system using satellites, a receiver and algorithms to synchronize location, velocity and time data for air, sea and land travel. The fourth satellite also moves us into the third-dimension and allows us to calculate the altitude of a device.

The GPS does not require the user to transmit any data, and it operates independently of any telephonic or internet reception, though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the GPS positioning information. The GPS provides critical positioning capabilities to military, civil, and commercial users around the world.

The GPS service is provided by the United States government, which can selectively deny access to the system, as happened to the Indian military in 1999 during the Kargil War, or degrade the service at any time. As a result, several countries have developed or are in the process of setting up other global or regional satellite navigation systems.

GLONASS can be added to GPS devices, making more satellites available and enabling positions to be fixed more quickly and accurately, to within two meters (6.6 ft). China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System began global services in 2018, and finished its full deployment in 2020. There are also the European Union Galileo positioning system, and India's NavIC.

Japan's Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) is a GPS satellite-based augmentation system to enhance GPS's accuracy in Asia-Oceania, with satellite navigation independent of GPS scheduled for 2023.



FIG-3 OVER VIEWS OF GPS TECHNOLOGY WORKS

· PRINCIPLE OF GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM:-

GPS is a satellite based navigation system. It uses a digital signal at about 1.5 GHz from each satellite to send data to the receiver. The receiver can then deduce its exact range from the satellite, as well as the geographic position (GP) of the satellite.


FIG 4-GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM SATELLITE

· Segments of global positioning system:-

The following are the three technical and operational characteristics of the segments are listed below:-

1- The space segment.

2- The operational and control segment [OCS].

3- User equipment segment.

REFERENCES

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[9] A. Van and Wessels, “Travelling by the computer: application of GIS in tourism and recreation”, Proc, Egis, (1994), http://www.odyssey.ursus.maine.edu/gisweb/spatdb/egis/e.

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[12] M. Kwan, “Interactive geovisualization of activity-travel patterns using three-dimensional geographical information systems: a methodological exploration with a large data set”, Transportation Research, vol. 8, (2000), pp. 185-203.

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[14] D. Buhalis and R Law, “Progress in information technology and tourism management: 20 years on and 10 years after the internet, the state of etourism research, Tourism Management”, vol. 29, (2008), pp. 609-623.

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